We’ve all visited the doctor and got confused about what is happening to us. The terminology is often complicated. This article talks about the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus. What diabetes mellitus is, what the main risk factors are, and the cure and prevention of the affection.
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What Is Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes affects the metabolism of people in whom there is an abnormal increase of glucose in the blood. Alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, all because the secretion of insulin alters its normal functioning.
Causes Of diabetes Mellitus And At What Age Can One Suffer From Diabetes?
People who are overweight and have a sedentary lifestyle are more likely to suffer from Diabetes; it is estimated that by 2025, we might have 300 million people suffering from the disease. Unfortunately, this disease doesn’t respect age: it’s present in people in their twenties up to sixty years of age.
2005 Statistics established that seven out of every hundred people in all age ranges suffer from Diabetes. In people over 20, research established that the prevalence of the disease was close to ten people in one hundred. And the incidence of the disease in people over sixty was somewhat higher than 20%.
Now, this illness is almost being considered pandemic because of the number of people that are affected. More than one hundred and fifty million people suffer from Diabetes. Moreover, the illness is among the six most frequent causes of death in the United States.
Important Risk Factors Of Diabetes Mellitus
A specialist must take into account the diabetes mellitus symptoms and complications of diabetes mellitus that patients presents. For example, people with Diabetes mellitus type 1 commonly present an excess in the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
Some of the symptoms can be: an exaggerated and urgent need to drink, abundant secretions of urine, weight loss and at a lower frequency. Other symptoms include: an uncontrollable sensation of hunger, blurred vision and scratching in specific areas or in the whole body.
Symptoms vary from one type of diabetes to another. For example, in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the disease is often present for several years, from 4 to 7 years before being diagnosed. More than half of the people present cardiovascular complications at the time of the disease being detected. The symptoms are generally less acute than in type 1 diabetes. They may be accompanied by lethargy or a state of tiredness and prolonged drowsiness with some fatigue. With the obesity epidemic has come an increase in type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents.
Tests for Diabetes should be performed on people 45 years of age or older. If healthy, it should be repeated every three years.
Who Should Undergo A Diabetes Test?
Exams should be considered in people 30 years of age or older, more frequently in people who:
– present a body mass index between 18.5 and 24.9 and greater, in which case the person is in a state of obesity, or overweight.
– live a sedentary life, that is to say, with a small or total lack of physical activity.
– have close family members suffering from Diabetes
– are part of ethnic groups at high risk for Diabetes: African American, Latino, Hispanic American, Native American, Asian American, Pacific Islander
– have had a baby weighing 9 lbs or more or who have experienced unexplained perinatal death or who have been diagnosed with gestational Diabetes
– are hypertensive, this being people with blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mm Hg
– suffer from high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with levels of 35 mg/dL (0.9 mm/L) and/or triglyceride level greater than or equal to 250 mg/dL (2.82 mm/L)
– have impaired glucose tolerance or an impaired fasting glucose
– suffer from clinical conditions associated with insulin resistance
– have a history of vascular disease, specifically cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases.
Cure, Prevention And Control Of Diabetes Mellitus
The cure and prevention of Diabetes has an unlimited spectrum of possibilities.
The effectiveness of any treatment depends on when the action is taken.
Diabetes mellitus can be cured or prevented, and it can be pharmacologically administered by a specialist physician, although many of us prefer a non-pharmacological treatment of diabetes mellitus.
The cure of Diabetes is possible in certain situations through insulin replacement, particularly in type 1 diabetes mellitus.
People who don’t suffer from diabetes but are part of any of the risk groups can prevent it by being well informed and by regularly consulting a specialist.
The prevention of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in high-risk individuals has focused on lifestyle modifications, increasing exercise frequency, a healthier nutrition, and weight control. This approach has proven to be highly successful in reducing the incidence of disease by close to 58% compared with a 31% reduction in rate using pharmacotherapy, specifically metformin. Pharmacotherapy aims to reduce insulin resistance and improve the function of immune system cells. These protect our body against infection, including the intake of oral anti-diabetic agents being investigated.
Andreoli, T. (n.d.). Cecil Essentials of Medicine. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Charles J. Carpenter, MD., M.A.C.P., Robert C. Griggs, M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.A.N., Ivor J. Benjamin, M.D., F.A.C.C., F.A.H.A., pp.676,699.
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